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Most S. pneumoniae serotypes can cause disease, but only a minority of serotypes produce the majority of pneumococcal infections.. Pneumococci are common inhabitants of the respiratory tract and may be isolated from the nasopharynx of 5–90% of … This section deals with what streptococcus pneumonia is, the symptoms of it, where they are found, how are they transmitted and everything else a person needs to be aware of about it.Streptococcus Pneumoniae is a beta-hemolytic, or alpha-hemolytic, gram-positive bacterium. Antibiotics can treat pneumococcal disease. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. This activity is intended primarily for primary care providers, including family-practice physicians, internists, and advanced-practice nurses. CDC twenty four seven. This bacterium spreads through the air. Here are the symptoms to keep an eye out for, its common causes, and how to keep yourself healthy. Generally, people do not develop pneumococcal disease after exposure … Additionally, growing the bacteria in a laboratory is important for identifying the specific type of bacteria that is causing the infection.

This kind of vaccine is recommended to children below 2 years of age, adults above 65 years of age and everyone else who have weak immune systems.Taking a pneumonia vaccine shot helps to prevent the harmful, life-threatening and contagious pneumococcal disease that this bacteria cause.

Although it benefits from it, it does not generally cause any harm to the human body. Hence, coming in contact with the air where the infected person has sneezed or coughed can spread the disease. To read this article in full you will need to make a paymentA brief history of the pneumococcus in biomedical research: a panoply of scientific discovery.Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya.Epidemiologic evidence for serotype-specific acquired immunity to pneumococcal carriage.Tissue-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence factors to pathogenesis.Low CD4 T cell immunity to pneumolysin is associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci in children.Bacterial pathogens of otitis media and sinusitis: Detection in the nasopharynx with selective agar media.A cluster of invasive pneumococcal disease in young children in child care.An epidemic of pneumococcal disease in an overcrowded, inadequately ventilated jail.Halting a pneumococcal pneumonia outbreak among United States Marine Corps trainees.Random colony selection versus colony morphology for detection of multiple pneumococcal serotypes in nasopharyngeal swabs.Acquisition and invasiveness of different serotypes of Clonal relationships between invasive and carriage Indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal colonization among unvaccinated household members.Invasive pneumococcal disease in children 5 years after conjugate vaccine introduction—eight states, 1998–2005.Incidence of pneumococcal disease due to non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes in the United States during the era of widespread PCV7 vaccination 1998–2004.International circumpolar surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease, 1999–2005.Use of proton pump inhibitors and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based case-control study.Involvement of the platelet activating factor receptor in host defense against CD14 facilitates invasive respiratory tract infection by Genome sequence of Avery's virulent serotype 2 strain D39 of Microarray analysis of pneumococcal gene expression during invasive disease.Development of genomic array footprinting for identification of conditionally essential genes in A locus contained within a variable region of pneumococcal pathogenicity island 1 contributes to virulence in mice.Genomic diversity between strains of the same serotype and multilocus sequence type among pneumococcal clinical isolates.Switch from planktonic to sessile life: a major event in pneumococcal pathogenesis.Relationship between codon biased genes, microarray expression values and physiological characteristics of Capsule enhances pneumococcal colonization by limiting mucus-mediated clearance.Illustration of pneumococcal polysaccharide capsule during adherence and invasion of epithelial cells.The role of pneumolysin in pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis.Contribution of novel choline-binding proteins to adherence, colonization and immunogenicity of Pneumococcal surface protein C contributes to sepsis caused by In vivo binding of complement regulator factor H by Teichoic acids and related cell-wall glycopolymers in Gram-positive physiology and host interactions.Pneumococcal virulence factors: structure and function.Convergence of regulatory networks on the pilus locus of Genetic analysis of host resistance: toll-like receptor signaling and immunity at large.Role of the property of C-reactive protein to activate the classical pathway of complement in protecting mice from pneumococcal infection.Improved host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia in platelet-activating factor receptor-deficient mice.The C-type lectin SIGN-R1 mediates uptake of the capsular polysaccharide of Specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin-related 1 (SIGNR1) expressed by marginal zone macrophages is essential for defense against pulmonary Interaction of SIGNR1 expressed by marginal zone macrophages with marginal zone B cells is essential to early IgM responses against The scavenger receptor MARCO is required for lung defense against pneumococcal pneumonia and inhaled particles.Toll-like receptor 2 plays a role in the early inflammatory response to murine pneumococcal pneumonia but does not contribute to antibacterial defense.Both innate immunity and type 1 humoral immunity to Lipoteichoic acid is important in innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteria.Penicillin enhances the toll-like receptor 2-mediated proinflammatory activity of Recognition of pneumolysin by Toll-like receptor 4 confers resistance to pneumococcal infection.The apoptotic response to pneumolysin is Toll-like receptor 4 dependent and protects against pneumococcal disease.TLR2 synergizes with both TLR4 and TLR9 for induction of the MyD88-dependent splenic cytokine and chemokine response to Toll-like receptor 9 acts at an early stage in host defence against pneumococcal infection.Myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent signalling controls bacterial growth during colonization and systemic pneumococcal disease in mice.TNF-alpha compensates for the impaired host defense of IL-1 type I receptor-deficient mice during pneumococcal pneumonia.IL-18 improves the early antimicrobial host response to pneumococcal pneumonia.Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency.Selective predisposition to bacterial infections in IRAK-4-deficient children: IRAK-4-dependent TLRs are otherwise redundant in protective immunity.A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis.Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins are innate immune receptors for internalized The inflammasome: first line of the immune response to cell stress.Innate immunity in the lung: how epithelial cells fight against respiratory pathogens.Functions and regulation of NF-kappaB RelA during pneumococcal pneumonia.The role of surfactant protein D in the colonisation of the respiratory tract and onset of bacteraemia during pneumococcal pneumonia.Alveolar macrophage apoptosis contributes to pneumococcal clearance in a resolving model of pulmonary infection.Alveolar macrophages have a protective antiinflammatory role during murine pneumococcal pneumonia.Decreased alveolar macrophage apoptosis is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia.CD11b limits bacterial outgrowth and dissemination during murine pneumococcal pneumonia.Role of galectin-3 as an adhesion molecule for neutrophil extravasation during streptococcal pneumonia.Galectin-3 reduces the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia by augmenting neutrophil function.Differential contribution of bacterial N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and host-derived CXC chemokines to neutrophil infiltration into pulmonary alveoli during murine pneumococcal pneumonia.Reactive oxygen species regulate neutrophil recruitment and survival in pneumococcal pneumonia.Role of chemokines and formyl peptides in pneumococcal pneumonia-induced monocyte/macrophage recruitment.Inhibition of pulmonary antibacterial defense by interferon-gamma during recovery from influenza infection.The importance of neutrophils in resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia in adult and neonatal mice.Influence of neutropenia on the course of serotype 8 pneumococcal pneumonia in mice.Host cellular immune response to pneumococcal lung infection in mice.CD4-T-lymphocyte interactions with pneumolysin and pneumococci suggest a crucial protective role in the host response to pneumococcal infection.Accumulation of gamma/delta T cells in the lungs and their roles in neutrophil-mediated host defense against pneumococcal infection.Pulmonary dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages are regulated by gamma delta T cells during the resolution of IL-10 is an important mediator of the enhanced susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza infection.Critical role of Valpha14+ natural killer T cells in the innate phase of host protection against The classical pathway is the dominant complement pathway required for innate immunity to A dominant complement fixation pathway for pneumococcal polysaccharides initiated by SIGN-R1 interacting with C1q.Serum amyloid P aids complement-mediated immunity to Passive immunization against tumor necrosis factor-alpha impairs host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia in mice.Role of inflammatory mediators in resistance and susceptibility to pneumococcal infection.Potential hazards of combination immunotherapy in the treatment of experimental sepsis.Interleukin-6 gene-deficient mice show impaired defense against pneumococcal pneumonia.The role of interferon-gamma in murine pneumococcal pneumonia.Role of gamma interferon in the pathogenesis of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.Essential role for the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 in neutrophil-mediated early host defense against pulmonary infection with Nuclear factor-kappaB activation in mouse lung lavage cells in response to Targeted disruption of the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B leads to multifocal defects in immune responses.IkappaB genetic polymorphisms and invasive pneumococcal disease.Coagulation abnormalities in critically ill patients.The host response to endotoxin, anti-LPS strategies and the management of severe sepsis.Local activation of the tissue factor-factor VIIa pathway in patients with pneumonia and the effect of inhibition of this pathway in murine pneumococcal pneumonia.Severe community-acquired pneumonia as a cause of severe sepsis: data from PROWESS study.Antithrombin inhibits bronchoalveolar activation of coagulation and limits lung injury during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia in rats.The Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.Patterns of resolution of chest radiograph abnormalities in adults hospitalized with severe community-acquired pneumonia.BTS guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections.Rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia among HIV-infected adults with urine antigen detection.Quantitative PCR assay using sputum samples for rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia in adult emergency department patients.Toward a quantitative DNA-based definition of pneumococcal pneumonia: a comparison of An international prospective study of pneumococcal bacteremia: correlation with in vitro resistance, antibiotics administered, and clinical outcome.The effect of cephalosporin resistance on mortality in adult patients with nonmeningeal systemic pneumococcal infections.Failure of macrolide antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia due to erythromycin-resistant Resistance to levofloxacin and failure of treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia.Combination antibiotic therapy lowers mortality among severely ill patients with pneumococcal bacteremia.Monotherapy may be suboptimal for severe bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.Addition of a macrolide to a β-lactam-based empirical antibiotic regimen is associated with lower in-hospital mortality for patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.Treatment with protein synthesis inhibitors improves outcomes of secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza.Changes in invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults living in the era of childhood pneumococcal immunization.Pneumococcal vaccine–direct and indirect (“herd”) effects.Changing characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia after introduction of a 7-valent conjugate vaccine.Increase in the prevalence of the newly discovered pneumococcal serotype 6C in the nasopharynx after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Pneumococcal mastoiditis in children and the emergence of multidrug-resistant serotype 19A isolates.Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in one American City: a 20-year longitudinal study, 1978–1997.Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States.

This kind of vaccine is recommended to children below 2 years of age, adults above 65 years … It resides in the human body mainly in the sinuses, nasal cavity and respiratory tract.

People with pneumococcal disease can spread the bacteria to others when they cough or sneeze. Pneumonia feels a lot like the common cold, but can become serious if left untreated. Lungs (pneumonia) Ears (otitis) Sinuses (sinusitis) Brain and spinal cord tissue (meningitis) Blood (bacteremia) Symptoms … In addition to the vaccine, Pneumococcal bacteria are resistant to one or more antibiotics in 3 out of every 10 cases.Antibiotic sensitivity testing shows which antibiotics will be most successful at treating a bacterial infection.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, many types of pneumococcal bacteria have become resistant to some of the antibiotics used to treat these infections. People such as young children, elderly people and other people who have a weak immune system due to various factors are at risk.There are various infections and diseases that this bacterium can cause to the human body. Pneumococcal [noo-muh-KOK-uhl] disease is a name for any infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. However, the people who have weak immune systems get affected.

It is also important to get an influenza vaccine every year because having the flu increases the likelihood of getting pneumococcal disease.. This is because they carry the bacteria in their throat and their nose without being ill.People who have a strong immune system can, however, prevent the bacteria from spreading to any other parts of the body and therefore shows no signs or symptoms of the disease. This is because their immune system weakens in comparison to others.There are people who smoke regularly have a weaker immune system in comparison to others who don’t. Target Audience and Goal Statement. Broad-spectrum antibiotics work against a wide range of bacteria.

Pneumococcus bacteria can cause infections in many parts of the body, includingSymptoms of pneumococcal infection depend on the part of the body affected. Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Some groups may need multiple doses or booster shots.

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